Design and Experimental Comparison of Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Buses Based on Test-Bench Simulation

Victor Isaac Herrera, Aitor Milo, Haizea Gaztanaga, Amaia Gonzalez-Garrido, Haritza Camblong, Andres Sierra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Energy management in hybrid and electric vehicles is a key factor to improve the operational performance and meet the efficiency objectives defined in the transport sector. Thus, optimized energy management strategies (EMSs), before being integrated in a real system, need to be experimentally validated in test-bench platforms in order to identify the possible deviations from the expected simulation-based performance while minimizing the implementation time and field-test on the real application. An economical and flexible mean of validating these strategies is the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Therefore, this work aims to present the design approach and comparison, by means of experimental tests, of two optimized (simulation-based) EMSs proposed for a hybrid electric bus (HEB) focusing on the real-time operational performance. Both EMSs handle the proper power split behavior of the vehicle demand among a genset (internal combustion engine + electric generator) and a hybrid energy storage system (combining Li-ion batteries with supercapacitors). The experimental platform consists of a scaled test bench emulating the electrical dc grid of a HEB. This test bench, combined with software models to control the power electronic devices, allows us to emulate the real behavior of the genset, battery, supercapacitor, traction, and auxiliary loads.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8576627
Pages (from-to)3066-3075
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy management strategy (EMS)
  • experimental validation
  • hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation
  • hybrid energy storage system (HESS)
  • hybrid vehicle
  • test bench


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