Hormonal modulation of plant immunity

Corné M.J. Pieterse, Dieuwertje Van Der Does, Christos Zamioudis, Antonio Leon-Reyes, Saskia C.M. Van Wees

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1978 Scopus citations


Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling pathways are interconnected in a complex network, which provides plants with an enormous regulatory potential to rapidly adapt to their biotic environment and to utilize their limited resources for growth and survival in a cost-efficient manner. Plants activate their immune system to counteract attack by pathogens or herbivorous insects. Intriguingly, successful plant enemies evolved ingenious mechanisms to rewire the plant's hormone signaling circuitry to press or evade host immunity. Evidence is emerging that beneficial root-inhabiting microbes also hijack the hormone-regulated immune signaling network to establish a prolonged mutualistic association, highlighting the central role of plant hormones in the regulation of plant growth and survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)489-521
Number of pages33
JournalAnnual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
StatePublished - 2012


  • hormone cross talk
  • immune signaling network
  • immune suppression
  • jasmonic acid
  • phytohormones
  • salicylic acid


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