Joint Probabilities Approach to Quantum Games with Noise

Alexis R. Legón, Ernesto Medina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A joint probability formalism for quantum games with noise is proposed, inspired by the formalism of non-factorizable probabilities that connects the joint probabilities to quantum games with noise. Using this connection, we show that the joint probabilities are non-factorizable; thus, noise does not generically destroy entanglement. This formalism was applied to the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Chicken Game, and the Battle of the Sexes, where noise is coupled through a single parameter μ. We find that for all the games except for the Battle of the Sexes, the Nash inequalities are maintained up to a threshold value of the noise. Beyond the threshold value, the inequalities no longer hold for quantum and classical strategies. For the Battle of the sexes, the Nash inequalities always hold, no matter the noise strength. This is due to the symmetry and anti-symmetry of the parameters that determine the joint probabilities for that game. Finally, we propose a new correlation measure for the games with classical and quantum strategies, where we obtain that the incorporation of noise, when we have quantum strategies, does not affect entanglement, but classical strategies result in behavior that approximates quantum games with quantum strategies without the need to saturate the system with the maximum value of noise. In this manner, these correlations can be understood as entanglement for our game approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1222
Issue number8
StatePublished - 16 Aug 2023


  • correlation measure
  • dilemma dissolution
  • noise
  • quantum games
  • quantum strategies


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