Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering

F. E. Carvajal-Larenas, A. R. Linnemann, M. J.R. Nout, M. Koziol, M. A.J.S. van Boekel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0–52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0–24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9–3.0, 26.5–39.6, and 41.2–56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1454-1487
Number of pages34
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Issue number9
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2016


  • Alkaloids
  • aqueous debittering
  • biological debittering
  • chemical debittering
  • processing
  • protein-rich food


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