Quality and bioaccessibility of antioxidants of bread enriched with naranjilla (solanum quitoense) fruit

María José Andrade-Cuvi, Michelle Guijarro-Fuertes, Analía Concellón, María Gabriela Vernaza, Juan Bravo-Vásquez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to develop a loaf bread enriched with naranjilla (lulo) fruit (shells, seeds and pulp) and determine the technical quality, sensory acceptability and bioavailability (by in vitro digestion) of antioxidant components. Design/methodology/approach: Loaf bread was prepared by using a no-time bread-making process. The crumb moisture, specific volume, crust and crumb color, texture profile analysis, analysis of the crumbs' alveoli, sensory evaluation, in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and antioxidant capacity were determined. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Findings: The specific volume was reduced by 21% (4.62 cm3/g, p < 0.0001), and the hardness was increased by 70% (2.9 N, p < 0.0001). Enrichment of the bread with naranjilla fruit (NF) contributes a yellowish coloration to the bread, which was very well accepted by the consumers and could be considered a natural colorant alternative. Moreover, the sensory evaluation indicated that the analyzed attributes (appearance, color, odor, taste, firmness and overall quality) of the naranjilla bread presented scores higher than 6.5 of 9 points hedonic scale. Naranjilla in the bread formulation had good acceptability by consumers. Naranjilla-enriched bread had an increase in total phenolic (TP)compounds and total carotenoids. In the product without digestion, naranjilla bread increased 1.7 times for TP, 50 times for CT and 1.3 times for TEAC, compared to the control bread (p < 0.0001). The percentage of bioaccessibility for fresh bread without digestion was 39.2 and 53.9% for the control and naranjilla bread, respectively. The addition of NF contributes to a higher TP compounds content and favors its bioavailability. Practical implications: For bread production, fruits that do not meet the quality standards to be consumed as a natural fruit can be used. In this way, these fruits can contribute as a potential use to reduce agro-industrial waste and as a natural colorant. Originality/value: Naranjilla is a native fruit from the subtropical Andean regions, which has high ascorbic acid concentrations, making it a fruit rich in antioxidants. Naranjilla-enriched bread contributes with beneficial compounds for the consumer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1282-1298
Number of pages17
JournalNutrition and Food Science
Issue number8
StatePublished - 6 Oct 2021


  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Carotenoids
  • In vitro digestion
  • Loaf bread
  • Lulo


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