Sulfur deprivation modulates salicylic acid responses via nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 in arabidopsis thaliana

Steven Criollo-Arteaga, Sofia Moya-Jimenez, Martin Jimenez-Meza, Victor Gonzalez-Vera, Jessica Gordon-Nunez, Sol Llerena-Llerena, Dario X. Ramirez-Villacis, Pieter van ‘t Hof, Antonio Leon-Reyes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mineral nutrients are essential for plant growth and reproduction, yet only a few studies connect the nutritional status to plant innate immunity. The backbone of plant defense response is mainly controlled by two major hormones: salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). This study investigated changes in the macronutrient concentration (deficiency/excess of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and sulfur) on the expression of PR1, a well-characterized marker in the SA-pathway, and PDF1.2 and LOX2 for the JA-pathway, analyzing plants carrying the promoter of each gene fused to GUS as a reporter. After histochemical GUS assays, we determined that PR1 gene was strongly activated in response to sulfur (S) deficiency. Using RT-PCR, we observed that the induction of PR1 depended on the function of Non-expressor of Pathogenesis-Related gene 1 (NPR1) and SA accumulation, as PR1 was not expressed in npr1-1 mutant and NahG plants under S-deprived conditions. Plants treated with different S-concentrations showed that total S-deprivation was required to induce SA-mediated defense responses. Additionally, bioassays revealed that S-deprived plants, induced resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. DC3000 and increase susceptibility to the necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea. In conclusion, we observed a relationship between S and SA/JA-dependent defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1065
JournalPlants
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021

Keywords

  • NPR1
  • Nutrition
  • Plant defenses
  • Salicylic acid
  • Sulfur

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