Air quality in the Galapagos Islands: A baseline view from remote sensing and in situ measurements

María Cazorla, Edgar Herrera

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

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Resumen

A characterization of ambient air levels of PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO in the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador is presented from in situ and remote sensing observations. PM2.5 was derived from aerosol optical depth (AOD; AERONET) measured at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Galapagos Campus (2017–2019). Boundary layer (BL) ozone was obtained from Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) profiles (1998–2016). Background SO2 and pollution events during volcanic eruptions (2005–2018) were estimated from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total column measurements through a well-mixed volume approach. Similarly, ambient NO2 was estimated from OMI data (2012–2019). CO was obtained from Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) observations (2012–2017). The study was complemented using Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) reanalysis products and backward trajectory model runs. From the results, baseline levels of the analysed species (PM2.5 = 3.8 μg·m−3, O3 = 17 ppbv, SO2 = 3.6 ppbv, CO = 80 ppbv, NO2 in populated islands = 23 pptv as one year averages) are comparable with other pristine regions, but some factors can cause increased concentrations. First, high tourism seasons (February–April and July–September) raise background PM2.5, NO2 and CO. Furthermore, signals in July–September can be augmented by transport from biomass-burning regions in the Amazon. This latter factor episodically causes ozone to increase up to 45–75 ppbv (1 hr mean). Lastly, volcanic eruptions raise SO2 up to almost 700 ppbv (24 hr mean) and increase PM2.5 to 29.5 μg·m−3 (1 hr mean). The present study provides for the first time baseline levels of air contaminants in the Galapagos, and identifies specific sources whose effect in time is necessary to monitor given global conditions of vulnerable environmental quality.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículoe1878
PublicaciónMeteorological Applications
Volumen27
N.º1
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 1 ene. 2020

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