For the first time in Ecuador, a defecation rate is calculated from three captured páramo rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis andinus individuals. Combining this defecation rate, the pellet count method, and Novaro et al.'s (1992) hare density equation, páramo rabbit densities were calculated in four páramo localities with different vegetation structures. A correlation was found between the páramos' vegetation diversity and páramo rabbit densities. This study shows that pellet counting is an economical and non-invasive method that permits the estimation of páramo rabbit abundances in páramo ecosystems. Páramo rabbit abundances may serve as a tool to measure the effects of human activity over small mammal population sizes. Further studies of small páramo mammals will help better understand páramo ecosystem functions and will provide insights into its land management and conservation.