Healthcare-associated infections (HAI), or nosocomial infections, are a global health and economic problem in developed and developing countries, particularly for immunocompromised patients in their intensive care units (ICUs) and surgical site hospital areas. Recurrent pathogens in HAIs prevail over antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For this reason, natural antibacterial mechanisms are a viable alternative for HAI treatment. Natural fibers can inhibit bacterial growth, which can be considered a great advantage in these applications. Moreover, these fibers have been reported to be biocompatible and biodegradable, essential features for biomedical materials to avoid complications due to infections and significant immune responses. Consequently, tissue engineering, medical textiles, orthopedics, and dental implants, as well as cosmetics, are fields currently expanding the use of plant fibers. In this review, we will discuss the source of natural fibers with antimicrobial properties, antimicrobial mechanisms, and their biomedical applications.