Associations between soil-transmitted helminthiasis and viral, bacterial, and protozoal enteroinfections: A cross-sectional study in rural Laos

Anna N. Chard, Kelly K. Baker, Kevin Tsai, Karen Levy, Jeticia R. Sistrunk, Howard H. Chang, Matthew C. Freeman

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

11 Citas (Scopus)


Background: Humans are susceptible to over 1400 pathogens. Co-infection by multiple pathogens is common, and can result in a range of neutral, facilitative, or antagonistic interactions within the host. Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are powerful immunomodulators, but evidence of the effect of STH infection on the direction and magnitude of concurrent enteric microparasite infections is mixed. Methods: We collected fecal samples from 891 randomly selected children and adults in rural Laos. Samples were analyzed for 5 STH species, 6 viruses, 9 bacteria, and 5 protozoa using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. We utilized logistic regression, controlling for demographics and household water, sanitation, and hygiene access, to examine the effect of STH infection on concurrent viral, bacterial, and protozoal infection. Results: We found that STH infection was associated with lower odds of concurrent viral infection [odds ratio (OR): 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.83], but higher odds of concurrent bacterial infections (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.07) and concurrent protozoal infections (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 0.95-2.37). Trends were consistent across STH species. Conclusions: The impact of STH on odds of concurrent microparasite co-infection may differ by microparasite taxa, whereby STH infection was negatively associated with viral infections but positively associated with bacterial and protozoal infections. Results suggest that efforts to reduce STH through preventive chemotherapy could have a spillover effect on microparasite infections, though the extent of this impact requires additional study. The associations between STH and concurrent microparasite infection may reflect a reverse effect due to the cross-sectional study design. Additional research is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the immunomodulatory effects of STH on concurrent enteric microparasite infection.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo216
PublicaciónParasites and Vectors
EstadoPublicada - 7 may. 2019
Publicado de forma externa


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