Pollen, a remarkably versatile natural compound collected by bees for its abundant source of proteins and nutrients, represents a rich reservoir of diverse bioactive compounds with noteworthy chemical and therapeutic potential. Its extensive biological effects have been known and exploited since ancient times. Today, there is an increased interest in finding natural compounds against oxidative stress, a factor that contributes to various diseases. Recent research has unraveled a multitude of biological activities associated with bee pollen, ranging from antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties to potential antiviral and anticancer applications. Comprehending the extensive repertoire of biological properties across various pollen sources remains challenging. By investigating a spectrum of pollen types and their chemical composition, this review produces an updated analysis of the bioactive constituents and the therapeutic prospects they offer. This review emphasizes the necessity for further exploration and standardization of diverse pollen sources and bioactive compounds that could contribute to the development of innovative therapies.