Correlates of maternal depression, anxiety and functioning across an urban-rural gradient in northern Ecuador

Kiana Ghahyazi, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Oriana Culbert, Jessica Uruchima, Amanda Van Engen, William Cevallos, Joseph N.S. Eisenberg, Karen Levy, Gwenyth O. Lee

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva


Maternal depression remains under characterised in many low- and middle-income countries, especially in rural settings. We aimed to describe maternal depression and anxiety symptoms in rural and urban communities in northern Ecuador and to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with these symptoms. Data from 508 mothers participating in a longitudinal cohort study were included. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25), and maternal psychological functioning was assessed using a checklist of daily activities. Tobit regression models were used to examine associations with sociodemographic variables and urbanicity. The median HSCL-25 score was 1.2 (IQR: 0.4) and 14% of women scored above the threshold for clinically relevant symptoms. Rural women reported similar food insecurity, less education, younger age of first pregnancy, and lower socio-economic status compared to their urban counterparts. After adjusting for these factors, rural women reported lower HSCL-25 scores compared to women lin urban areas (β = −0.48, 95%CI:0.65, −0.31). Rural residence was also associated with lower depression and anxiety HSCL-25 sub-scale scores, and similar levels of maternal functioning, compared to urban residence. Our results suggest that both household and community-level factors are risk factors for maternal depression and anxiety in this context.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo2291697
PublicaciónGlobal Public Health
EstadoPublicada - 2023
Publicado de forma externa


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