Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive disease that shows evident geographic variation and is characterized by a poor prognosis, mainly due to the late diagnosis and ineffective treatment. Genetic variants associated with GBC susceptibility, including polymorphisms within the toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG8 genes, represent promising biomarkers for the stratification of patients at higher risk of GBC; thus, showing potential to prioritize cholecystectomy, particularly considering that early diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of specific signs and symptoms. Similarly, our better understanding of the gallbladder carcinogenic processes has led to identify several cellular and molecular events that may influence patient management, including HER2 aberrations, high tumor mutational burden, microsatellite instability, among others. Despite these reports on interesting and promising markers for risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis; there is an unmet need for reliable and validated biomarkers that can improve the management of GBC patients and support clinical decision-making. This review article examines the most potentially significant biomarkers of susceptibility, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection for GBC patients, highlighting the need to find and validate existing and new molecular biomarkers to improve patient outcomes.