Delayed acquisition of airway commensals in antibiotic naïve children and its relationship with wheezing in rural Ecuador

Paul A. Cardenas, Michael J. Cox, Saffron A. Willis-Owen, Miriam F. Moffatt, William O. Cookson, Philip J. Cooper

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva


Introduction: The hygiene hypothesis identified a relationship between living in rural areas and acquiring protective environmental factors against the development of asthma and atopy. In our previous study, we found a correlation between particular bacterial species and early-onset wheezing in infants from the rural tropics of Ecuador who were corticosteroid-naïve and had limited antibiotic exposure. We now describe a longitudinal study of infants conducted to determine the age-related changes of the microbiome and its relationship with wheezing. Methods: We performed an amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene from the oropharyngeal samples obtained from 110 infants who had a history of recurrent episodic wheezing sampled at different ages (7, 12, and 24 months) and compared it to the sequencing of the oropharyngeal samples from 150 healthy infants sampled at the same time points. Bioinformatic analyses were conducted using QIIME and R. Results: As expected, the microbiota diversity consistently increased as the infants grew older. Considering age-based microbiota changes, we found that infants with wheeze had significantly lower species richness than the healthy infants at 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Most of the core and accessory organisms increased in abundance and prevalence with age, except for a few which decreased. At 7 months of age, infants with wheeze had notably higher levels of a single Streptococcus operational taxonomic unit and core microbiota member than controls. Conclusions: In a cohort with limited antibiotic and corticosteroid use, a progressively more complex and diverse respiratory microbial community develops with age. The respiratory microbiota in early life is altered in infants with wheeze, but this does not hold true in older infants.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo1214951
PublicaciónFrontiers in Allergy
EstadoPublicada - 10 ago. 2023


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