The increasing resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the existing drugs has alarmed the worldwide scientific community. In an attempt to overcome this problem, two models for the design and prediction of new antituberculosis agents were obtained. The first used a mixed approach, containing descriptors based on fragments and the topological substructural molecular design approach (TOPS-MODE) descriptors. The other model used a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) descriptors. A data set of 167 compounds with great structural variability, 72 of them antituberculosis agents and 95 compounds belonging to other pharmaceutical categories, was analyzed. The first model showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values above 80% and the second one showed values higher than 75% for these statistical indices. Subsequently, 12 structures of imidazoles not included in this study were designed, taking into account the two models. In both cases accuracy was 100%, showing that the methodology in silico developed by us is promising for the rational design of antituberculosis drugs.