The mechanisms of the gas-phase elimination kinetics of 1-chloro-3-methylbut-2-ene and 3-chloro-3-methylbut-1-ene and their interconversion have been examined at MP2 and DFT levels of theory. These halide substrates yield isoprene and hydrogen chloride. The results MPW1PW91 calculations agree with the experimental kinetic parameters showing the elimination reaction occurs at greater rate for 1-chloro-3-methylbut-2-ene than that for the 3-chloro-3-methylbut-1-ene isomer. The mechanism for the molecular elimination of 1-chloro-3-methylbut-2-ene suggests proceeding through an uncommon six-membered cyclic transition state for alkyl halides in the gas phase, while 3-chloro-3-methylbut-1-ene eliminates through the usual four-membered cyclic transition state. The elongation and subsequent polarization of the C-Cl bond, in the direction of Cδ+Cl δ-, is rate determining step of these reactions. The isomerization of 1-chloro-3-methylbut-2-ene and 3-chloro-3-methylbut-1-ene was additionally studied. The 1-chloro-3-methylbut-2-ene converts to 3-chloro-3-methylbut-1-ene easier than the reverse reaction. This means that 1-chloro-3-methylbut-2-ene was found thermodynamically more stable than 3-chloro-3-methylbut-1-ene.
|Número de páginas
|Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering
|Publicada - 2012
|Publicado de forma externa