Apocynin has been extensively used as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in many experimental models using phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Currently, there is some controversy about the efficacy of apocynin in non-phagocytic cells, but in phagocytes the reported results are consistent, which could be due to the presence of myeloperoxidase in these cells. This enzyme has been proposed as responsible for activating apocynin by generating its dimer, diapocynin, which is supposed to be the active compound that prevents NADPH oxidase complex assembly and activation. Here, we synthesized diapocynin and studied its effect on inhibition of gp91phox RNA expression. We found that diapocynin strongly inhibited the expression of gp91phoxmRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Only at a higher concentration, apocynin was able to exert the same effect. We also compared the apocynin and diapocynin efficacy as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated PBMC. Although apocynin did inhibit TNF-α production, diapocynin had a much more pronounced effect, on both TNF-α and IL-10 production. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the bioconversion of apocynin to diapocynin is an important issue not limited to enzymatic activity inhibition, but also for other biological effects as gp91phox mRNA expression and cytokine production. Hence, as diapocynin can be easily prepared from apocynin, a one-step synthesis, we recommend its use in studies where the biological effects of apocynin are searched.
|Número de páginas
|Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
|Publicada - 12 mar. 2010
|Publicado de forma externa