Dried blood spot analysis for elements of nutritional concern as demonstrated in studies of Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus species)

Andreas F. Lehner, Sarah Rebolloso, Paul P. Calle, Karen Ingerman, Gregory A. Lewbart, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Carlos A. Valle, John P. Buchweitz

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Background: Dried blood spot (DBS) technology is valuable in providing simple means of storing blood samples from wildlife with small blood volumes. Methods designed for heavy metal analysis on DBS become more useful if extended to elements of nutritional significance. Purpose: (1) Development of procedures for measuring Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo in DBS; (2) use the designed methods in health assessments of Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus species). Procedures: Elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following acid digestion of whole blood or DBS from the same animal for direct comparison. Study animals comprised free-ranging iguanas from separate islands in the Galápagos archipelago. Main Findings: DBS spikes (Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo) demonstrated accuracy to ∼100 ppb; reporting limits were set there except for Fe and Zn which were set at 1000 ppb. Plasma samples – generally preferable for nutritional element diagnostics – were submitted from Galápagos land iguanas along with DBS as part of a large-scale health assessment. In plasma versus DBS concentration comparisons, Fe, Cu, Se and Mn correlated well with R^2 values of 0.799, 0.818, 0.896 and 0.899, respectively, and slopes ranging 0.88 – 1.3. Co and Zn showed greater scatter. Mo had insufficient points above its reporting limit and offered advantages for toxicity assessments. Bland-Altman diagrams showed flat scatter between 2x standard deviation boundaries with no undue trends except for Mn which had few points above its reporting limit. Bias, defined as the average difference [DBS – plasma] divided by the average value, was relatively low throughout, with values of − 19.3 % (Fe), − 48.7 % (Co), − 19.6 % (Cu), − 6.9 % (Zn), − 21.4 % (Se) and + 40.7 % (Mn). Normal distribution assessment of iguana Cu, Zn, Se and Fe plasma values showed unanticipated divergences between two species. Conclusions: The DBS approach for nutritional element analysis offers a suitable methodology for determining crucial elements Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo in veterinary samples. Analyses of samples from Conolophus species revealed interesting divergences particularly for Cu, Zn, Se and Fe, elements generally associated with defense against oxidative stress.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo127322
PublicaciónJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
EstadoPublicada - ene. 2024


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