Effect of High Altitude on the Survival of COVID-19 Patients in Intensive Care Unit: A Cohort Study

Manuel Jibaja, Estefania Roldan-Vasquez, Jordi Rello, Hua Shen, Nelson Maldonado, Michelle Grunauer, Ana María Díaz, Fernanda García, Vanessa Ramírez, Hernán Sánchez, José Luis Barberán, Juan Pablo Paredes, Mónica Cevallos, Francisco Montenegro, Soraya Puertas, Killen Briones, Marlon Martínez, Jorge Vélez-Páez, Mario Montalvo-Villagómez, Luis HerreraSantiago Garrido, Ivan Sisa

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

10 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Purpose: The effect of high altitude (≥ 1500 m) and its potential association with mortality by COVID-19 remains controversial. We assessed the effect of high altitude on the survival/discharge of COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission for mechanical ventilation compared to individuals treated at sea level. Methods: A retrospective cohort multi-center study of consecutive adults patients with a positive RT-PCR test for COVID-19 who were mechanically ventilated between March and November 2020. Data were collected from two sea-level hospitals and four high-altitude hospitals in Ecuador. The primary outcome was ICU and hospital survival/discharge. Survival analysis was conducted using semi-parametric Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Of the study population (n = 670), 35.2% were female with a mean age of 58.3 ± 12.6 years. On admission, high-altitude patients were more likely to be younger (57.2 vs. 60.5 years old), presented with less comorbidities such as hypertension (25.9% vs. 54.9% with p-value <.001) and diabetes mellitus (20.5% vs. 37.2% with p-value <.001), less probability of having a capillary refill time > 3 sec (13.7% vs. 30.1%, p-value <.001), and less severity-of-illness condition (APACHE II score, 17.5 ± 8.1 vs. 20 ± 8.2, p <.01). After adjusting for key confounders high altitude is associated with significant higher probabilities of ICU survival/discharge (HR: 1.74 [95% CI: 1.46-2.08]) and hospital survival/discharge (HR: 1.35 [95% CI: 1.18-1.55]) than patients treated at sea level. Conclusions: Patients treated at high altitude at any time point during the study period were 74% more likely to experience ICU survival/discharge and 35% more likely to experience hospital survival/discharge than to the sea-level group. Possible reasons for these findings are genetic and physiological adaptations due to exposure to chronic hypoxia.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)1265-1273
Número de páginas9
PublicaciónJournal of Intensive Care Medicine
Volumen37
N.º9
DOI
EstadoPublicada - sep. 2022

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