We describe Centrolene bacatum, C. buckleyi, Cochranella posadae, and a new species of Cochranella from Yanayacu Biological Station on the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species differs from other species in Centrolenidae by a combination of characters, including reduced webbing between Fingers III and IV, and kidneys covered with white peritoneum. We summarize the current generic and infrageneric classification in Centrolenidae and discuss some of its problems. A phylogenetic analysis of morphological and behavioural data shows that the genera Centrolene and Cochranella might not be monophyletic; the genus Hyalinobatrachium and, in particular, the group H. fleischmanni seem to be monophyletic. However, an analysis with many more characters is needed to resolve the relationships of glass frogs.