The aim of this work was to understand whether the nature of breast cancer cells could modify the nature of the dialog of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer cells. By treating MSCs with the conditioned medium of metastatic Estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231, or non-metastatic ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we observed that a number of chemokines were produced at higher levels by MSCs treated with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium (CM). MDA-MB-231 cells were able to induce NF-κB signaling in MSC cells. This was shown by the use of a NF-kB chemical inhibitor or an IκB dominant negative mutant, nuclear translocation of p65 and induction of NF-κB signature. Our results suggest that MDA-MB-231 cells exert their effects on MSCs through the secretion of IL-1β, that activates MSCs and induces the same chemokines as the MDA-MB-231CM. In addition, inhibition of IL-1β secretion in the MDA-MB-231 cells reduces the induced production of a panel of chemokines by MSCs, as well the motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data suggest that aggressive breast cancer cells secrete IL-1β, which increases the production of chemokines by MSCs.