The emergence, spread, and persistence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains a pressing global concern. Increased promotion of commercial small-scale agriculture within low-resource settings has facilitated an increased use in antimicrobials as growth promoters globally, creating antimicrobial-resistant animal reservoirs. We conducted a longitudinal field study in rural Ecuador to monitor the AMR of Escherichia coli populations from backyard chickens and children at three sample periods with approximately 2-month intervals (February, April, and June 2017). We assessed AMR to 12 antibiotics using generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMM). We also sampled and assessed AMR to the same 12 antibiotics in one-day-old broiler chickens purchased from local venders. One-day-old broiler chickens showed lower AMR at sample period 1 compared to sample period 2 (for 9 of the 12 antibiotics tested); increases in AMR between sample periods 2 and 3 were minimal. Two months prior to the first sample period (December 2016) there was no broiler farming activity due to a regional collapse followed by a peak in annual farming in February 2017. Between sample periods 1 and 2, we observed significant increases in AMR to 6 of the 12 antibiotics in children and to 4 of the 12 antibiotics in backyard chickens. These findings suggest that the recent increase in farming, and the observed increase of AMR in the one-day old broilers, may have caused the increase in AMR in backyard chickens and children. Small-scale farming dynamics could play an important role in the spread of AMR in low- and middle-income countries.