Exposure to microgravity and ionizing radiation during spaceflight missions causes excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that contributes to cellular stress and damage in astronauts. Average spaceflight mission time is expected to lengthen as humanity aims to visit other planets. However, longer missions or spaceflights will undoubtedly lead to an increment in microgravity, ionizing radiation and ROS production. Strategies to minimize ROS damage are necessary to maintain the health of astronauts, future space colonists, and tourists during and after spaceflight missions. An antioxidant cocktail formulated to prevent or mitigate ROS damage during space exploration could help maintain the health of space explorers. We propose key points to consider when developing an antioxidant cocktail. We discuss how ROS damages our body and organs, the genetic predisposition of astronauts to its damage, characteristics and evidence of the effectiveness of antioxidants to combat excess ROS, differences in drug metabolism when on Earth and in space that could modify antioxidant effects, and the characteristics and efficacy of common antioxidants. Based on this information we propose a workflow for assessing astronaut resistance to ROS damage, infight monitoring of ROS production, and an antioxidant cocktail. Developing an antioxidant cocktail represents a big challenge to translate current medical practices from an Earth setting to space. The key points presented in this review could promote the development of different antioxidant formulations to maintain space explorers’ health in the future.