This study evaluates litter dynamics and its relation to macroinvertebrate communities (assemblages and feeding habits) at Piburja stream (3300 m, Ecuador). Annual litterfall (216 g AFDM/m2) was not related to rainfall, but differed significantly between months. Transport of Coarse Particulate Organic Matter (CPOM) did not differ between seasons, but retention was higher during the dry season. Thus, CPOM standing stock was higher in the dry (125.28 g AFDM/m2) compared to the wet season (12.27 g AFDM/m2). Macroinvertebrate richness and diversity were positively related to Coarse Benthic Organic Matter (CBOM) especially during the wet season. Gut content analysis revealed that, regardless of season, CPOM and Fine Particulate Organic Matter (FPOM) were the most important food items in the diet of most invertebrate taxa, including those that are not considered shredders or gathering collectors in the literature.