Locals get travellers’ diarrhoea too: risk factors for diarrhoeal illness and pathogenic Escherichia coli infection across an urban-rural gradient in Ecuador

Shanon M. Smith, Lorena Montero, Maritza Paez, Estefania Ortega, Eric Hall, Kate Bohnert, Xavier Sanchez, Edison Puebla, Pablo Endara, William Cevallos, Gabriel Trueba, Karen Levy

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

8 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Objectives: Diarrhoea is a common and well-studied cause of illness afflicting international travellers. However, traveller's diarrhoea can also result from travel between high and low disease transmission regions within a country, which is the focus of this study. Methods: We recruited participants for a case-control study of diarrhoea at four sites along an urban-rural gradient in Northern Ecuador: Quito, Esmeraldas, Borbón and rural communities outside of Borbón. At each of these sites, approximately 100 subjects with diarrhoea (cases) were recruited from Ministry of Health clinics and were age-matched with subjects visiting the same clinics for other complaints (controls). Results: Travellers to urban destinations had higher risk of diarrhoea and diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) infections. Travel to Quito was associated with diarrhoea (aOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.10–3.68) and travel to Guayaquil (another urban centre in Ecuador) was associated with Diffuse Adherent E. coli infection (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.01–4.33). Compared to those not travelling, urban origins were also associated with greater risk of diarrhoea in Esmeraldas (aOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.20–4.41), and with higher risk of diarrhoeagenic E. coli infections in Quito (aOR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.16–5.86), with >50% of travel from Quito and Esmeraldas specified to another urban destination. Conclusions: This study suggests that individuals travelling from lower-transmission regions (rural areas) to higher transmission regions (urban centres) within a single country are at a greater risk of acquiring a diarrhoea-related illness. Investments to improve water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in urban areas could have impacts on outlying rural areas within a given country.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)205-219
Número de páginas15
PublicaciónTropical Medicine and International Health
Volumen24
N.º2
DOI
EstadoPublicada - feb. 2019

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