The results of a meeting of physicians convening in Latin America to develop expert opinions on the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of iron overload are as follows. An accurate diagnosis can be obtained by neonatal screening for haemoglobinopathies, especially sickle cell disease and the thalassaemias. Disease-specific registries are needed to demonstrate the extent of the problem to health authorities. Disparities in the quantity and quality of blood products must be addressed, and uniform transfusion guidelines are necessary. Serum ferritin level is a feasible marker for iron overload in the region, while magnetic resonance imaging assessment can improve the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac and liver iron content. Medical specialists, including radiologists, pathologists and others, and health authorities, can help to implement these methods and provide adequate resources. The recently available oral deferasirox can be used to conveniently administer iron chelation to transfusional iron-overloaded patients.