South America is a subcontinent with 393 million inhabitants with widely distinct countries and diverse ethnicities, cultures, political and societal organizations. The epidemiological transition that accompanied the technological and demographic evolution is happening in South America and leading to a rise in the incidence of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases that now coexist with the still high burden of infectious diseases. South America is also quite heterogeneous regarding the existence of systems of care for the various neurological emergencies, with some countries having well-organized systems for some diseases, while others have no plan of action for the care of patients with acute neurological symptoms. In this article, we discuss the existing systems of care in different countries of South America for the treatment of neurological emergencies, mainly stroke, status epilepticus, and traumatic brain injury. We also will address existing gaps between the current systems and recommendations from the literature to improve the management of such emergencies, as well as strategies on how to solve these disparities.