Although only a few studies have investigated about the development of animal prosthesis, currently, there is an increasing interest in canine limb prosthesis design and its clinical application since they offer an alternative to killing the animal in extreme situations where amputating the limb is the only option. Restoring normal function of amputated canine limbs with the use of a prosthesis is challenging. However, recent advances in surgical procedures and prosthesis design technology appear promising in developing devices that closely recreate normal canine limb function. Surgical advances such as evolution of osseointegration (bone-anchored) prostheses present great promise. Likewise, modern computer-aided design and manufacturing technology, as well as novel motion analysis systems are now providing improved prosthesis designs. Advances in patient-customized prostheses have the potential to reduce the risk of implant failure. The objective of this investigation is to present a general review of the existing literature on modern surgical approaches, design and manufacturing methods, as well as biomechanical analyses so that veterinarians can make more and better-informed decisions on the development and selection of proper canine limb prosthesis. Isolated research efforts have made possible an improvement in stability, comfort, and performance of canine limb prosthesis. However, continued multidisciplinary research collaboration and teamwork among veterinarians, engineers, designers, and industry, with supporting scientific evidence, is required to better understand the development of canine limb prosthesis designs that closely replicate the normal limb function.