When biodegradable polyester devices, like sutures and screws, are implanted into the body, it is very challenging to image them in deep tissue, monitor their degradation, and detect defects. We report our recent findings on non-invasive deep tissue imaging of polyester degradation, stability and integrity using an iodinated-polycaprolactone (i-P(CLcoOPD)) X-ray imaging contrast agent. The results of experiments performed with i-P(CLcoOPD) demonstrate the feasibility to quantify in-situ polyester degradation in vitro and in vivo using rats. We also demonstrate that X-ray imaging could be used to identify and quantify physical defects, such as cracks, in polymeric implants using rabbit animal models. This approach enables non-invasive monitoring of polyester materials and is expected to become an important technology for improving the imaging of polymers at clinically relevant depths.