NSD1 gene evolves under episodic selection within primates and mutations of specific exons in humans cause Sotos syndrome

Vanessa I. Romero, Benjamin Arias-Almeida, Stefanie A. Aguiar

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Resumen

Background: Modern human brains and skull shapes differ from other hominids. Brain growth disorders as micro- (ASPM, MCPH1) and macrocephaly (NFIX, GLI3) have been highlighted as relevant for the evolution in humans due to the impact in early brain development. Genes associated with macrocephaly have been reported to cause this change, for example NSD1 which causes Sotos syndrome. Results: In this study we performed a systematic literature review, located the reported variants associated to Sotos syndrome along the gene domains, compared the sequences with close primates, calculated their similarity, Ka/Ks ratios, nucleotide diversity and selection, and analyzed the sequence and structural conservation with distant primates. We aimed to understand if NSD1 in humans differs from other primates since the evolution of NSD1 has not been analyzed in primates, nor if the localization of the mutations is limited to humans. Our study found that most variations causing Sotos syndrome are in exon 19, 22 and 10. In the primate comparison we did not detect Ka/Ks ratios > 1, but a high nucleotide diversity with non-synonymous variations in exons 10, 5, 9, 11 and 23, and sites under episodic selection in exon 5 and 23, and human, macaque/colobus/tarsier/galago and tarsier/lemur/colobus. Most of the domains are conserved in distant primates with a particular progressive development from a simple PWWP1 in O. garnetti to a complex structure in Human. Conclusion: NSD1 is a chromatin modifier that suggests that the selection could influence brain development during modern human evolution and is not present in other primates; however, nowadays the nucleotide diversity is associated with Sotos syndrome.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo849
PublicaciónBMC Genomics
Volumen23
N.º1
DOI
EstadoPublicada - dic. 2022

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