Objective: The aims of the following experiments were to characterize antidiabetic invitro and invivo activity of the polyphenol-rich aqueous extract of Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL). Methods: RSL extract (RSLE) and isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects on glucose production as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent inhibition of insulin activity in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Additionally, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were treated with RSLE (100 or 300 mg/kg), metformin (250 mg/kg), or vehicle (water) for 28 d by oral administration and insulin and oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted. Tissues were harvested at the end of the study and evaluated for biochemical and physiological improvements in metabolic syndrome conditions. Results: A polyphenol-rich RSLE, containing chlorogenic acid, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside, and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, was produced by simple boiling water extraction at pH 2.0. Invitro, RSLE and chlorogenic acid demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of glucose production. Invivo, RSLE treatment improved glucose metabolism measured by oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin tolerance tests. RSLE treated groups had a lower ratio of liver weight to body weight as well as decreased total liver lipids compared with the control group after 28 d of treatment. No significant differences in plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed with RSLE-treated groups compared with vehicle control. Conclusion: RSLE demonstrated antidiabetic effects invitro and invivo and may improve metabolic syndrome conditions of fatty liver and glucose metabolism.