Presence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Food-Producing and Companion Animals and Wildlife on Small-Holder Farms of Floreana Island, Galápagos Islands

Sarah Rhea, Catherine Gensler, Nigatu Atlaw, Monique Pairis-Garcia, Gregory A. Lewbart, Alyssa Valentine, Marilyn Cruz, Paulina Castillo, Alberto Vélez, Gabriel Trueba, Megan E. Jacob

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

Resumen

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AR) has led to increasing human and animal morbidity and mortality and negative consequences for the environment. AR among Escherichia coli (EC) is on the rise, with serious concerns about extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC). In the Galápagos Islands, where antimicrobials are available without a prescription, growing demands for food production can drive antimicrobial use. Food producing animals are at the interface of wildlife and environmental health on the smallest human-inhabited Galápagos Island, Floreana. We sought to determine if ESBL-EC were present in Floreana Island farm animal species and nearby wildlife and the relatedness of ESBL-EC isolates identified. Materials and Methods: During July 4–5, 2022, we visited 8 multispecies farms, representing 75% of food-producing animal production on Floreana, and collected 227 fecal samples from farm animals and wildlife. Each sample was plated on MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime (4 lg/mL). Results: ESBL-EC was isolated from 20 (9%) fecal samples collected from pigs (N = 10), chickens (N = 6), wildlife (N = 3), and dog (N = 1). All ESBL-EC isolates were from samples taken at three (38%) of the eight farms. Fifteen (75%) of the ESBL-EC isolates were from a single farm. All ESBL-EC isolates were multidrug resistant. The most prevalent ESBL genes belonged to the blaCTX-M group. Among the typeable isolates from the farm with the largest proportion of ESBL-EC isolates (N = 14), we observed nine unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, with identical patterns present across pig and chicken isolates. PFGE patterns in the three farms with ESBL-EC isolates were different. Conclusions: These results lend support for future routine AR monitoring activities at the livestock–wildlife interface in Galápagos to characterize potential interspecies transmission of AR bacteria and AR genes in this unique protected ecosystem, and the related human, animal, and environmental health impacts, and to formulate interventions to reduce AR spread in this setting.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)36-45
Número de páginas10
PublicaciónVector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Volumen24
N.º1
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 1 ene. 2024

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