In this study, a series of novel quinolinone-based thiosemicarbazones were designed in silico and their activities tested in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed using quinolinone and thiosemicarbazide as pharmacophoric nuclei; the best model showed statistical parameters of R2 = 0.83; F = 47.96; s = 0.31, and was validated by several different methods. The van der Waals volume, electron density, and electronegativity model results suggested a pivotal role in antituberculosis (anti-TB) activity. Subsequently, from this model a new series of quinolinone-thiosemicarbazone 11a–e was designed and docked against two tuberculosis protein targets: enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) and decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose-2’-oxidase (DprE1). Molecular dynamics simulation over 200 ns showed a binding energy of −71.3 to −12.7 Kcal/mol, suggesting likely inhibition. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of quinolinone-thiosemicarbazone for 11a–e was evaluated against M. bovis, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and six different strains of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. All compounds exhibited good to excellent activity against all the families of M. tuberculosis. Several of the here synthesized compounds were more effective than the standard drugs (isoniazid, oxafloxacin), 11d and 11e being the most active products. The results suggest that these compounds may contribute as lead compounds in the research of new potential antimycobacterial agents.