Nowadays, emerging radiolabeled nanosystems are revolutionizing medicine in terms of diagnostics, treatment, and theranostics. These radionuclides include polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), liposomal carriers, dendrimers, magnetic iron oxide NPs, silica NPs, carbon nanotubes, and inorganic metal-based nanoformulations. Between these nano-platforms, polymeric NPs have gained attention in the biomedical field due to their excellent properties, such as their surface to mass ratio, quantum properties, biodegradability, low toxicity, and ability to absorb and carry other molecules. In addition, NPs are capable of carrying high payloads of radionuclides which can be used for diagnostic, treatment, and theranostics depending on the radioactive material linked. The radiolabeling process of nanoparticles can be performed by direct or indirect labeling process. In both cases, the most appropriate must be selected in order to keep the targeting properties as preserved as possible. In addition, radionuclide therapy has the advantage of delivering a highly concentrated absorbed dose to the targeted tissue while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. Said another way, radioactive polymeric NPs represent a promising prospect in the treatment and diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac ischemia, infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, and other type of cancer cells or tumors.