Here, we report the synthesis of robust hybrid iodinated silica-lipid nanoemulsions (HSLNEs) for use as a contrast agent for ultrasound and X-ray applications. We engineered iodinated silica nanoparticles (SNPs), lipid nanoemulsions, and a series of HSLNEs by a low-energy spontaneous nanoemulsification process. The formation of a silica shell requires sonication to hydrolyze and polymerize/condensate the iodomethyltrimethoxysilane at the oil/water interface of the nanoemulsion droplets. The resulting nanoemulsions (NEs) exhibited a homogeneous spherical morphology under transmission electron microscopy. The particles had diameters ranging from 20 to 120 nm with both negative and positive surface charges in the absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), respectively. Unlike CTAB-coated nanoformulations, the CTAB-free NEs showed excellent biocompatibility in murine RAW macrophages and human U87-MG cell lines in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose assessment was evaluated to verify their safety profiles in vivo. In vitro X-ray and ultrasound imaging and in vivo computed tomography were used to monitor both iodinated SNPs and HSLNEs, validating their significant contrast-enhancing properties and suggesting their potential as dual-modality clinical agents in the future.