Patterns of ranging behavior and space use are key for evaluating current ideas about the evolution and maintenance of pair-living and sexual monogamy as they provide insights into the dispersion of females, the potential for territoriality, and whether males are limited to defending an area that can support only one female and her offspring. We examined ranging behavior and space use to evaluate the potential for territoriality in five groups of red titi monkeys (Plecturocebus discolor) during a 10-year study in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Mean home range size, calculated using a time-sensitive local convex hull estimation procedure, was 4.0 ± 1.4 ha. Annual home ranges of neighboring groups overlapped, on average, 0%–7%. Mean daily path length was 670 ± 194 m, resulting in defendability indices of 2.2–3.6 across groups. Groups visited, on average, 4 of 12 sections of their home range border area per day, but that was not more often than would be expected by chance, and intergroup encounters were infrequent. We did not find evidence of active monitoring for intruders in border areas, in that groups did not travel either faster or slower when at the border than when in central areas of their range. The absence of overt monitoring might be compensated for by engaging in loud calls, which the study groups did throughout their home ranges; these calls may serve as an advertisement of occupancy and a deterrent to intruding conspecifics. Our finding that red titis have a high potential for territoriality is consistent with several of the main hypotheses proposed to explain pair-living in mammals.