For species of primates in which females emigrate, we would expect males within groups to be related to one another. Kin selection theory suggests that these males should associate preferentially with one another, be more affiliative and cooperative with one another than females are, and compete less overtly with one another over reproductive opportunities than males in female philopatric taxa do. Precisely these patterns of social behavior characterize well-studied populations of 2 of the 3 atelin primate genera: spider monkeys (Ateles) and muriquis (Brachyteles). For the third atelin genus, Lagothrix, patterns of intragroup social behavior have been less well-documented. We studied the social and reproductive behavior of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii) in Ecuador during a one-year observational study and subsequently used molecular techniques to investigate population genetic structure and dispersal patterns for this taxon. Among adult male woolly monkeys, both affiliative and agonistic interactions were rare, and males were seldom in close proximity to one another. Relationships among male woolly monkeys are best characterized as tolerant, especially in the context of mating wherein direct competition among males was minimal despite the fact that females mated with multiple males. Relationships among females were likewise generally tolerant but nonaffiliative, though females often directed harassment towards copulating pairs. Affiliative interactions that did occur among woolly monkeys tended to be directed either between the sexes-primarily from female to male-or from younger towards older males, and the proximity partners of females tended to be members of the opposite sex. These results suggest that bonds between the sexes may be more important than same-sex social relationships and that direct female-female competition is an important feature of woolly monkey reproductive biology. Our genetic results indicate that, as in other atelins, dispersal by females is common, but some male dispersal likely occurs as well. In some but not all groups we studied, nonjuvenile males within social groups were more closely related to one another on average than females were, which is consistent with greater male than female philopatry. However, differences in these patterns among our study groups may reflect local variation in dispersal behavior.