Mineral nutrients are essential for plant growth and reproduction, yet only a few studies connect the nutritional status to plant innate immunity. The backbone of plant defense response is mainly controlled by two major hormones: salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). This study investigated changes in the macronutrient concentration (deficiency/excess of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and sulfur) on the expression of PR1, a well-characterized marker in the SA-pathway, and PDF1.2 and LOX2 for the JA-pathway, analyzing plants carrying the promoter of each gene fused to GUS as a reporter. After histochemical GUS assays, we determined that PR1 gene was strongly activated in response to sulfur (S) deficiency. Using RT-PCR, we observed that the induction of PR1 depended on the function of Non-expressor of Pathogenesis-Related gene 1 (NPR1) and SA accumulation, as PR1 was not expressed in npr1-1 mutant and NahG plants under S-deprived conditions. Plants treated with different S-concentrations showed that total S-deprivation was required to induce SA-mediated defense responses. Additionally, bioassays revealed that S-deprived plants, induced resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. DC3000 and increase susceptibility to the necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea. In conclusion, we observed a relationship between S and SA/JA-dependent defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis.