Objectives: We investigated the diversity of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, by comparing genetic, morphological and pelage traits of animals from Peru and Ecuador. Materials and Methods: We extracted DNA from museum specimen osteocrusts and from fecal samples collected from free-ranging individuals. We sequenced the mtDNA cytochrome b gene and the control region from samples collected at 13 different sites and used Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood to identify distinct clades. We took measurements of the crania of a subset of these specimens (n = 26) and ran a logistic regression to determine if any of the cranial measurements (n = 22) could predict a specimen's clade. In addition, we examined the pelage patterns of the museum specimens and photographs taken of free-ranging individuals and divided them into pelage types based on coloration of the underbelly. Results: We identified two divergent clades, and two distinct groups with clear geographic boundaries within one of those clades. Two measurements of the zygomatic bone perfectly predicted a given individual's mtDNA clade. We found four distinct pelage patterns in our samples, but these patterns are variable within clades and among individuals within the same population. Conclusion: These analyses indicate that the two recognized subspecies of pygmy marmoset should be elevated to the species level (C. pygmaea and C. niveiventris) based on molecular and cranial differences but not on pelage patterns. We provide evidence on the geographic limits of the two clades and identify regions where additional sampling is required to better define the geographic distribution of the two clades.