The 3640–3510 BC rhyodacite eruption of Chachimbiro compound volcano, Ecuador: a violent directed blast produced by a satellite dome

Benjamin Bernard, Silvana Hidalgo, Claude Robin, Bernardo Beate, Jenny Quijozaca

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

13 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Based on geochronological, petrological, stratigraphical, and sedimentological data, this paper describes the deposits left by the most powerful Holocene eruption of Chachimbiro compound volcano, in the northern part of Ecuador. The eruption, dated between 3640 and 3510 years BC, extruded a ∼650-m-wide and ∼225-m-high rhyodacite dome, located 6.3 km east of the central vent, that exploded and produced a large pyroclastic density current (PDC) directed to the southeast followed by a sub-Plinian eruptive column drifted by the wind to the west. The PDC deposit comprises two main layers. The lower layer (L1) is massive, typically coarse-grained and fines-depleted, with abundant dense juvenile fragments from the outgassed dome crust. The upper layer (L2) consists of stratified coarse ash and lapilli laminae, with juvenile clasts showing a wide density range (0.7–2.6 g cm−3). The thickness of the whole deposit ranges from few decimeters on the hills to several meters in the valleys. Deposits extending across six valleys perpendicular to the flow direction allowed us to determine a minimum velocity of 120 m s−1. These characteristics show striking similarities with deposits of high-energy turbulent stratified currents and in particular directed blasts. The explosion destroyed most of the dome built during the eruption. Subsequently, the sub-Plinian phase left a decimeter-thick accidental-fragment-rich pumice layer in the Chachimbiro highlands. Juvenile clasts, rhyodacitic in composition (SiO2 = 68.3 wt%), represent the most differentiated magma of Chachimbiro volcano. Magma processes occurred at two different depths (∼14.4 and 8.0 km). The hot (∼936 °C) deep reservoir fed the central vent while the shallow reservoir (∼858 °C) had an independent evolution, probably controlled by El Angel regional fault system. Such destructive eruptions, related to peripheral domes, are of critical importance for hazard assessment in large silicic volcanic complexes such as those forming the Frontal Volcanic Arc of Ecuador and Colombia.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo849
Páginas (desde-hasta)1-20
Número de páginas20
PublicaciónBulletin of Volcanology
Volumen76
N.º9
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 1 sep. 2014

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