THz Surface Plasmons in Wide and Freestanding Graphene Nanoribbon Arrays

Talia Tene, Marco Guevara, Yesenia Cevallos, Miguel Ángel Sáez Paguay, Stefano Bellucci, Cristian Vacacela Gomez

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Graphene is a thin-film carbon material that has immense potential as a key ingredient in new nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices due to its unique characteristics. In particular, plasmons in graphene appear as a practical tool for the manipulation of light with potential applications from cancer treatment to solar cells. A motivating tunability of graphene properties has been observed in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) due to their geometrically controllable bandgaps that, in turn, influence the plasmonic properties. The formidable effort made over recent years in developing GNR-based technologies is, however, weakened by a lack of predictive approaches that draw upon available semi-analytical electromagnetic models. An example of such a framework is used here, focusing on experimentally realized GNRs from 155 to 480 nm wide and organized as two-dimensional (2D) GNR arrays. The results show that the plasmon frequency behavior is highly affected by the experimental setup or geometrical factors. In particular, the bandgap of the analyzed systems is of the order of a few meV with a density of states opening around zero energy (Fermi level) in contrast to what is observed in graphene. From the plasmonic part, it is observed in all 2D GNR arrays that the frequency–momentum trend follows a (Formula presented.) -like plasmon dispersion whose plasmon frequency can be increased substantially by increasing the ribbon width or charge density concentration. Forbidden plasmon regions are observed for high values of plasmon excitation angle or electron relaxation rate. From a sensing point of view, the important finding is the fact that 2D GNR arrays of 155 nm wide with high values of electron relaxation rate have plasmon responses similar to those observed for (Formula presented.) thrombin in water. Our predictions are projected to be of fast support for detecting plasmons in more complex designs of ribbon nanodevices with potential applications in molecular sensing of aqueous molecules.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo28
EstadoPublicada - 23 dic. 2022
Publicado de forma externa


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