Transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked electroencephalography responses as biomarkers for epilepsy: A review of study design and outcomes

Silvano R. Gefferie, Diego Jiménez-Jiménez, Gerhard H. Visser, Robert M. Helling, Josemir W. Sander, Simona Balestrini, Roland D. Thijs

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículo de revisiónrevisión exhaustiva

1 Cita (Scopus)


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG), that is TMS-EEG, may assist in managing epilepsy. We systematically reviewed the quality of reporting and findings in TMS-EEG studies on people with epilepsy and healthy controls, and on healthy individuals taking anti-seizure medication. We searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science databases for original TMS-EEG studies comparing people with epilepsy and healthy controls, and healthy subjects before and after taking anti-seizure medication. Studies should involve quantitative analyses of TMS-evoked EEG responses. We evaluated the reporting of study population characteristics and TMS-EEG protocols (TMS sessions and equipment, TMS trials and EEG protocol), assessed the variation between protocols, and recorded the main TMS-EEG findings. We identified 20 articles reporting 14 unique study populations and TMS methodologies. The median reporting rate for the group of people with epilepsy parameters was 3.5/7 studies and for the TMS parameters was 13/14 studies. TMS protocols varied between studies. Fifteen out of 28 anti-seizure medication trials in total were evaluated with time-domain analyses of single-pulse TMS-EEG data. Anti-seizure medication significantly increased N45, and decreased N100 and P180 component amplitudes but in marginal numbers (N45: 8/15, N100: 7/15, P180: 6/15). Eight articles compared people with epilepsy and controls using different analyses, thus limiting comparability. The reporting quality and methodological uniformity between studies evaluating TMS-EEG as an epilepsy biomarker is poor. The inconsistent findings question the validity of TMS-EEG as an epilepsy biomarker. To demonstrate TMS-EEG clinical applicability, methodology and reporting standards are required.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)3446-3460
Número de páginas15
PublicaciónHuman Brain Mapping
EstadoPublicada - 10 mar. 2023
Publicado de forma externa


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