Objective: Although oral health is a preventable disease, it affects a good portion of vulnerable populations, such as the elderly, children, low-income individuals, and certain racial and ethnic groups. Early childhood caries remains the most prevalent chronic childhood condition worldwide with 60%-90% of schoolchildren having dental cavities. We examined contributing and protecting factors that may have an impact on the oral health of the children in three rural communities in Ecuador. Materials and Methods: We conducted a minimally invasive clinical dental examination on 131 Ecuadorian children aged 6-12 years and used a modified caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) form to assess contributing and protecting factors for oral health. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 24). Results: Preliminary data show that about 80% of the mothers or primary caregivers had active decay in the past year and did not have a dental home. Almost half of the children had not seen a dentist within the last year, and some of them had never seen a dentist until the encounter with this study. The use of bottles or sippy cups with fluids other than water and frequent snacking was common in the communities. The results of the clinical examination indicated that the majority of the children had obvious dental decay, restorations, and dental plaque and a good proportion had also gingivitis. Conclusion/Implications: CAMBRA should become a standard tool of the comprehensive oral examination conducted by any health care professional and should be used as the basis for a preventive and treatment plan.