Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is generally preceded by an infection, and it is usually self-limiting and non-recurrent. However, when there are multiple attacks of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis followed by optic neuritis, it is defined as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-optic neuritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and optic neuritis preceded by autoinflammation, triggered by periodic fever syndrome. Case summary: We report on a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with optic neuritis and periodic fever syndrome in a 12-year-old Ecuadorian Hispanic boy with several relapses over the past 10 years, always preceded by autoinflammatory manifestations and without evidence of infectious processes. Whole exome sequencing was performed, and although the results were not conclusive, we found variants in genes associated with both autoinflammatory (NLRP12) and neurological (POLR3A) phenotypes that could be related to the disease pathogenesis having a polygenic rather than monogenic trait. Conclusion: We propose that an autoinflammatory basis should be pursued in patients diagnosed as having acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and no record of infections. Also, we show that our patient had a good response after 1 year of treatment with low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin and colchicine.